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2012 Report


 INOGO Mapas 2012: a high resolution map of land cover in the Osa and Golfito region of Costa Rica.  



 
RapidEye satellite image and object segmentation and classification for forests to the south of Piedras Blancas National Park, Costa Rica (E. Broadbent)

Eben North Broadbent a,b*, Angélica María Almeyda Zambrano a.b, Rodolfo Dirzo b,c

a Spatial Ecology and Conservation Lab, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32608. b Iniciativa Osa y Golfito (INOGO), Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. c Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

* Contact email: eben@ufl.edu, website: http://www.speclab.org 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS i
LIST OF FIGURES ii
LIST OF TABLES iii
Introduction 4
Objectives 4
Study area 4
Overview 4
Methods 5
Classes of land use and land cover 5
Remote sensing 7
Geospatial analyses 10
Results 12
Discussion and conclusions 25
References 26
Supplementary materials 27
SM-A. Land use and land cover on the Osa Peninsula and mainland. 28
SM-B1. Land use and land cover ≤ 1 km from roads. 30
SM-B2. Land use and land cover > 1 km from roads. 32
SM-C. Land use and land cover ≤ 5 km from principal population centers. 34
SM-D. Land use and land cover ≤ 5 km from secondary population centers. 36



 
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. An overview of the study area located in the Osa and Golfito region on the southwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. 5
Figure 2. Habitat quality over the INOGO study area. 6
Figure 3. Closeup of habitat fragmentation south of the Piedras Blancas national park. Red outlines are the INOGO Mapas 2012 objects overlaid on RapidEye satellite imagery. 9
Figure 4. The study regions used in our analyses. 11
Figure 5. Stepwise regression results of habitat quality (with intact, degraded, and converted equal to 1, 2, 3, respectively) versus (a) protected vs. not, (b) elevation, and (c) slope. 23
Figure 6. Logistic regressions of habitat quality versus (a) elevation and (b) slope. 24


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Land use and land cover (LULC) classes used in this study. 7
Table 2. RapidEye satellite images used in this study. 8
Table 4. Landscape metrics used in this study. 10
Table 5. Habitat quality over the entire study area. 12
Table 6. Land use and land cover (LULC) in the study region. 13
Table 7. Habitat quality on the Osa Peninsula versus the mainland. 15
Table 8. Habitat quality ≤ 1 km of roads and > 1km from roads. 16
Table 9A. Habitat quality within protected areas and outside protected areas. 17
Table 9B. Habitat quality within protected areas and outside protected areas. 18
Table 10. Habitat quality within selected protected areas and within a 5 km buffer around them. 19
Table 11. Habitat quality within the principal population centers in our study region. 21
Table 12. Habitat quality within the secondary population centers in our study region. 22

 
Introduction
The Osa and Golfito region is an area of exceptional biodiversity, but also is undergoing rapid conversion and degradation of its natural habitats for anthropogenic land uses, such as pasture and agriculture. The understand the spatial extent of habitat, establish a baseline for future studies, and to understand issues related to connectivity among natural protected areas, it is critical to have a high-resolution baseline study of the land use and land cover of the region. No such study has been conducted over this entire region at a resolution enabling detailed understanding of the extent and distribution of natural habitats, and their potential interactions with wildlife in this region.
Objectives
This study had two primary objectives:
(1) Create a high-resolution map of the Osa and Golfito region for the year 2012.
(2) Use this map to understand the spatial extent, distribution and fragmentation of different classes of land use and land cover across our study region.
Study area
Overview
The study area occurs within the Osa and Golfito cantones, in the province of Puntarenas, in the Southeast of Costa Rica. The study area includes the Corcovado and Piedras Blancas national parks, the Terraba Sierpe national wetland, and the Golfo Dulce Forest reserve. It also includes two indigenous reserves, the Conte Burica and the Osa Reserves. A broad overview of the study region is provided in Figure 1 and a detailed map is provided in Figure 2.


 
Figure 1. An overview of the study area located in the Osa and Golfito region on the southwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. 

Methods
Classes of land use and land cover
We used a modified version of the land use and land cover classes used by the original Ecomapas project, which mapped land use and land cover in the Osa and Golfito region in 1998 (citation). Our final classification used 53 seperate land use and land cover classes. The full list is provided in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of each LULC class is provided by Ecomapas (citation). In general, broad classes are defined as dense forest, dense shrubland, and dense grassland, which are then subdivided into various species or structural based land use and land cover classes. To provide additional information on whether these classes were of natural or anthropogenic origen we included an additional category of ‘intact’, ‘degraded’, or ‘converted’ from its natural state. 
 
Figure 2. Habitat quality over the INOGO study area. 
Table 1. Land use and land cover (LULC) classes used in this study.

Land Cover (English) Land cover (Spanish) Frequency Type Map code
Dense forest Bosque Denso Very high Intact 1
Dense mangrove forest Bosque Denso de Mangle Very high Intact 101
Dense Melina forest Bosque Denso de Melina Low Converted 106
Dense oil palm plantation Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite Very high Converted 111
Dense Pejibaye plantation Bosque Denso de Pejibaye Low Converted 113
Dense forest plantation Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal Low Converted 104
Dense Pochote plantation Bosque Denso de Pochote Low Converted 108
Dense Roble Coral plantation Bosque Denso de Roble Coral Low Converted 105
Dense Teca plantation Bosque Denso de Teca Low Converted 107
Dense Trichospermum plantation Bosque Denso de Trichospermum Low Converted 103
Dense forest of Yolillo Bosque Denso de Yolillo Low Intact 102
Dense forest swamp Bosque Denso Pantanoso Low Degraded 109
Open forest Bosque Ralo High Degraded 2
Open forest of Cerillo Bosque Ralo de Cerillo Low Intact 204
Open mangrove forest Bosque Ralo de Mangle Low Degraded 201
Open Melina plantation Bosque Ralo de Melina Low Converted 203
Dense scrubby Yollilo forest Bosque Ralo de Yolillo Low Degraded 202
Urban forest Bosque Urbano Low Converted 115
Water body Cuerpo de Agua High Intact 14
Forest grassland with Yolillo Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo Low Intact 301
Forest grassland with Negra Forra Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra Low Intact 305
Forest grassland for pasture Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje Low Converted 302
Forested grassland   Herbazal Arbustivo Low Converted 9
Forested grassland of oil palm plantation Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite Low Converted 903
Forested grassland of Yolillo Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo Low Degraded 901
Forested grassland for pasture Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje Low Converted 902
Dense grassland Herbazal Denso High Converted 7
Dense grassland with trees Herbazal Denso Arbolado Low Degraded 3
Dense grassland of rice Herbazal Denso de Arroz High Converted 702
Dense grassland of banana Herbazal Denso de Banano Low Converted 703
Dense grassland of mangroves Herbazal Denso de Mangle Low Intact 701
Dense grassland of negra forra Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra Low Intact 706
Dense wetland grassland Herbazal Denso Pantanoso Low Intact 708
Dense grassland for pasture Herbazal Denso para Forraje Very High Converted 705
Dense grassland burnt Herbazal Denso Quemado Low Converted 707
Shrubby grassland Herbazal Ralo Low Converted 8
Shrubby grassland of Negra Forra Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra Low Intact 802
Shrubby grassland for pasture Herbazal Ralo para Forraje Very high Converted 801
Infrastructure Infraestructura Very high Converted 12
Dense shrubs Matorral Denso High Degraded 4
Dense shrubs with trees Matorral Denso Arbolado Low Degraded 6
Dense shrubs with Cerillo trees Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo Low Intact 604
Dense shrubs with trees of oil palm Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite High Converted 607
Dense shrubs of forest plantation trees Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal Low Converted 603
Dense shrubby mangrove Matorral Denso de Mangle Low Intact 401
Dense shrubby oil palm plantation Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite Low Converted 406
Dense shrubby forest plantation Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal Low Converted 404
Dense shrubby Yolillo Matorral Denso de Yolillo Low Intact 402
Open shrubs Matorral Ralo High Degraded 5
Open shrubby mangrove Matorral Ralo de Mangle Low Intact 501
Exposed soil Terreno Descubierto Very high Converted 10

Remote sensing
The RapidEye satellite imagery used in this study were mostly collected between Febuary and April in 2012. In total we used 49 separate images, with multiple images being acquired as needed for locations with higher cloud cover, such as mountainous regions. Table 2 provides the metadata for each image. Imagery were acquired in 3A format from Blackbridge, Inc., which indicates that the images were orthorectifieid and atmospherically corrected, using nearest neighbor transformation, with a final spatial accuracy < 15 meters per pixel. We then further georeferenced the images to pixel level (<5 meters) accuracy to enable use of image stacks to derive cloud free stacks. Each image was then run through the Berkeley Image Segmentation (http://www.imageseg.com) software to generate objects, or multiple-pixel objects having similar textural and spectral characteristics. We then classified each segment using the mean pixel classification of a nearest neighbor classification approach in ENVI version 5.2 (Exelis Visual Information Solutions, Boulder, Colorado), which was trained through class samples distributed throught the entire study region. Finally, we then manually checked each segment at a spatial scale of 1:2000 to 1:4000 and corrected the classification as necessary (see Figure 3 for closeup example). The final classification was validated againt a series of locations visisted in the field and/or obtained using very-high spatial resolution satellite imagery (i.e., World View II at 30x30 cm) scattered through the study region. The final accuracy assessment is provided in Table 3.

Table 2. RapidEye satellite images used in this study.
Tile_ID Stack_Order Date Tile_ID Stack_Order Date
1742903 1 3/29/2012 1743004 5 4/20/2012
1742904 1 2/17/2011 1743004 6 2/25/2012
1742904 2 3/14/2011 1743004 7 2/17/2011
1742904 3 1/17/2010 1743004 8 1/4/2010
1742905 1 3/13/2012 1743005 1 2/29/2012
1742905 2 2/27/2012 1743005 2 2/25/2012
1742905 3 12/5/2011 1743005 3 3/7/2012
1743002 1 3/23/2012 1743005 4 12/5/2009
1743002 2 1/29/2012 1743102 1 4/21/2012
1743002 3 1/17/2010 1743102 2 3/23/2012
1743002 4 12/25/2009 1743103 1 3/2/2012
1743002 5 3/2/2012 1743103 2 3/27/2012
1743002 6 3/16/2012 1743103 3 9/5/2012
1743003 1 1/29/2012 1743104 1 2/29/2012
1743003 2 2/17/2011 1743104 2 1/29/2012
1743003 3 3/14/2011 1743104 3 1/4/2010
1743003 4 4/20/2012 1743105 1 2/29/2012
1743003 5 1/18/2010 1743105 2 3/7/2012
1743003 6 1/17/2010 1743202 1 3/29/2012
1743003 7 9/5/2012 1743203 1 3/27/2012
1743003 8 1/4/2010 1743203 2 3/2/2012
1743004 1 3/7/2012 1743203 3 9/5/2012
1743004 2 2/29/2012 1743204 1 3/27/2012
1743004 3 1/29/2012 1743204 2 2/25/2012
1743004 4 9/5/2012  
 
 
Figure 3. Closeup of habitat fragmentation south of the Piedras Blancas national park. Red outlines are the INOGO Mapas 2012 objects overlaid on RapidEye satellite imagery.
 
Geospatial analyses
Geospatial analyses were conducted on the maps in shapefile format in ArcGIS software by ESRI (ESRI 2015. ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.2. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.). We established study regions in which we calculated the total area (Ha) and the total edge length (m) of each land cover class, and a number of landscape fragmentation metrics described in Table 4. These were: (a) within the Corcovado and Piedras Blancas national parks, (b) within the Terraba-Sierpe National wetland, (c) within the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve, and for a (d) 5 km buffer zone around each area. We compared land cover in these regions to the land cover found within the (f) non-protected and in the (g) indigenous areas. An overview of the focal study regions used in our analyses is provided in Figure 4. Our study regions also included 5 km buffer regions around the Corcovado and Piedras Blancas national parks and the Terraba-Sierpe mangroves and wetlands, 5 km buffer regions around our principal and secondary population centers, and 1 km buffers around all roads. We also performed selected comparisions between the Osa Peninsula versus the mainland portions of our entire study area (with our dividing line going approximately from Rincon and then to the north of Rancho Quemado and Drake to the Terraba-Sierpe mangrove area, as shown in the Figure 4). Statistical analyses of LULC data were then conducted using JMP Pro software, Version 11 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, 1989-2007).

Table 4. Landscape metrics used in this study.

Landscape Metric (indicator) Description
Number of patches Total number of patches (#) of each individual landcover class or ecosystem. The higher the number, the more fragmented.
Total area Total area (ha or km2) in each land cover class.
Total edge Total edge (m or km) of the patches of each land cover class.
Edge (km) / Area (km2) Indication of fragmentation, the higher the number the more fragmented.
Total area converted, degraded or intact A basic indication of habitat quality, with higher values of intact ecosystems indicating higher quality habitat availability

 
 
Figure 4. The study regions used in our analyses. 
Results
Our entire study area encompassed 283747 hectares, of which 63% was intact habitat, versys 28.3 fully converted to anthropogenic land uses (Table 5).

Table 5. Habitat quality over the entire study area.
Status Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Edge (%)
Converted 80159.1 32700940 28.3 44.8
Degraded 23823.6 14842120 8.4 20.3
Intact 179764.0 25510840 63.4 34.9
Grand Total 283746.6 73053900 100.0 100.0


The LULC class having the largest area over our entire study areas was dense forest (1456 km2), followed by dense grassland for pasture (256 km2) and dense shrubby areas (128 km2). A full list is provided in Table 6. The most fragmented natural habitat, as quantified by the edge to area radio, were dense mangrove grasslands. However, the most fragmented land cover type was infrastructure due to its small extent (i.e., individual houses).

The mainland had far less intact natural habitat (54%) versus on the Osa Peninsula (77%) (Table 7). The intact habitat on the mainland was also far more fragmented as indicated by the edge to area ratio. A full list of land use and land cover is provided in Supplementary Materials A.

Across the entire study region, far less intact habitat remained ≤ 1 km of roads (42%) than > 1 km (84%) from roads (Table 8). This difference was more pronounced on the Osa Peninsula (49% vs. 91%) than the mainland (41% vs. 77%). A full list of land use and land cover ≤ 1 km and > 1 km from roads is provided in Supplementary Materials B1 and B2. 
Table 6. Land use and land cover (LULC) in the study region.
Cobertura Clase Count (#) Area (Ha) Area (km2) Edge (m) Edge (km) Edge/Area (km/km) Count/Area (#/Km2) Count (Rank) Area (Rank) E/A (Rank)
Bosque Denso 5318 145618.1 1456.2 15768120 15768.1 10.8 3.7 1 1 51
Bosque Denso de Mangle 516 11564.0 115.6 2963100 2963.1 25.6 4.5 14 4 45
Bosque Denso de Melina 278 3153.9 31.5 1070170 1070.2 33.9 8.8 18 15 40
Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite 631 9773.1 97.7 1867710 1867.7 19.1 6.5 13 6 48
Bosque Denso de Pejibaye 6 22.8 0.2 12020 12.0 52.7 26.3 43 48 20
Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal 96 732.2 7.3 210880 210.9 28.8 13.1 28 26 43
Bosque Denso de Pochote 2 37.6 0.4 13310 13.3 35.4 5.3 48 46 37
Bosque Denso de Roble Coral 4 21.0 0.2 11040 11.0 52.5 19.0 46 49 22
Bosque Denso de Teca 4 73.0 0.7 24220 24.2 33.2 5.5 47 40 41
Bosque Denso de Trichospermum 8 41.8 0.4 19050 19.1 45.6 19.1 42 45 30
Bosque Denso de Yolillo 129 3723.8 37.2 778390 778.4 20.9 3.5 25 13 47
Bosque Denso Pantanoso 41 216.6 2.2 73610 73.6 34.0 18.9 35 34 39
Bosque Ralo 395 872.1 8.7 565610 565.6 64.9 45.3 15 23 10
Bosque Ralo de Cerillo 59 299.8 3.0 140220 140.2 46.8 19.7 33 31 28
Bosque Ralo de Mangle 249 927.1 9.3 523940 523.9 56.5 26.9 20 22 17
Bosque Ralo de Melina 13 72.0 0.7 42090 42.1 58.5 18.1 39 41 15
Bosque Ralo de Yolillo 13 63.9 0.6 41780 41.8 65.4 20.3 40 42 9
Bosque Urbano 89 150.3 1.5 117760 117.8 78.4 59.2 29 36 3
Cuerpo de Agua 1209 10449.1 104.5 2379520 2379.5 22.8 11.6 9 5 46
Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo 25 142.8 1.4 78260 78.3 54.8 17.5 38 37 19
Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra 2 57.6 0.6 17150 17.2 29.8 3.5 49 43 42
Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje 1054 2591.2 25.9 1777540 1777.5 68.6 40.7 10 17 6
Herbazal Arbustivo 1992 5390.0 53.9 3265340 3265.3 60.6 37.0 7 10 12
Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite 110 1026.7 10.3 406120 406.1 39.6 10.7 26 19 36
Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo 29 309.0 3.1 142470 142.5 46.1 9.4 37 30 29
Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje 1953 6435.2 64.4 3526950 3527.0 54.8 30.3 8 9 18
Herbazal Denso 3011 9371.5 93.7 4536950 4537.0 48.4 32.1 5 7 25
Herbazal Denso Arbolado 959 3009.3 30.1 1983030 1983.0 65.9 31.9 11 16 7
Herbazal Denso de Arroz 186 5246.8 52.5 810990 811.0 15.5 3.5 23 11 50
Herbazal Denso de Banano 38 226.4 2.3 107780 107.8 47.6 16.8 36 33 27
Herbazal Denso de Mangle 58 126.7 1.3 87760 87.8 69.2 45.8 34 39 5
Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra 210 990.9 9.9 427460 427.5 43.1 21.2 21 20 33
Herbazal Denso Pantanoso 5 135.4 1.4 24800 24.8 18.3 3.7 45 38 49
Herbazal Denso para Forraje 4827 25620.1 256.2 8784100 8784.1 34.3 18.8 2 2 38
Herbazal Denso Quemado 201 354.4 3.5 186360 186.4 52.6 56.7 22 29 21
Herbazal Ralo 260 678.4 6.8 401850 401.9 59.2 38.3 19 27 13
Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra 6 49.1 0.5 21240 21.2 43.2 12.2 44 44 32
Herbazal Ralo para Forraje 102 183.1 1.8 148000 148.0 80.8 55.7 27 35 2
Infraestructura 308 267.1 2.7 258770 258.8 96.9 115.3 17 32 1
Matorral Denso 2495 4607.5 46.1 3013860 3013.9 65.4 54.2 6 12 8
Matorral Denso Arbolado 3941 12835.0 128.3 7924860 7924.9 61.7 30.7 4 3 11
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo 77 1758.8 17.6 477600 477.6 27.2 4.4 30 18 44
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite 133 803.8 8.0 364410 364.4 45.3 16.5 24 24 31
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal 2 19.5 0.2 9590 9.6 49.2 10.3 50 50 24
Matorral Denso de Mangle 865 3553.9 35.5 1837360 1837.4 51.7 24.3 12 14 23
Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite 75 756.2 7.6 316800 316.8 41.9 9.9 31 25 35
Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal 2 6.3 0.1 4860 4.9 77.4 31.8 51 51 4
Matorral Denso de Yolillo 61 414.1 4.1 197780 197.8 47.8 14.7 32 28 26
Matorral Ralo 378 983.0 9.8 572960 573.0 58.3 38.5 16 21 16
Matorral Ralo de Mangle 9 33.9 0.3 14280 14.3 42.1 26.5 41 47 34
Terreno Descubierto 4420 7950.8 79.5 4704080 4704.1 59.2 55.6 3 8 14
Grand Total 36854 283746.6 2837.5 73053900 73053.9 25.7 13.0
 
Table 7. Habitat quality on the Osa Peninsula versus the mainland.

Status Count (#) Area (Ha) Perimeter (m) Area (%) Edge/Area (km/km2)
Mainland 24870 167039.3 52897956.2 100 31.7
Converted 14047 60164.1 24908814.6 36.01793 41.4
Degraded 5141 16765.5 10423110.9 10.03688 62.2
Intact 5682 90109.6 17566030.6 53.94519 19.5
Osa Peninsula 11901 116655.0 20178545.8 100 17.3
Converted 5558 19949.6 7759011.0 17.1014 38.9
Degraded 3370 7058.1 4421438.6 6.05038 62.6
Intact 2973 89647.3 7998096.2 76.84822 8.9
Grand Total 36853 283711.8 73097762.0


Table 9A and 9B present habitat quality within and outside protected areas. Areas within protected areas had a much higher intact habitat coverage (85%) versus outside protected areas (26%). The intact habitats outside protected areas were also much more fragmented. Although the sample size did not permit through statistical analyses, it was clear that the national parks had the highest intact habitat % and the least fragmented, whereas indigenous and forest reserves had the most converted and degraded habitat and the most fragmented. Across our entire study region, 72% of all intact habitat was found in areas having some level of protection status (Table 9B).

The greatest difference in the percentage of area in intact habitat within versus < 5 km from our selected protected areas occurred at the Terraba-Sierpe mangroves, which had 89% intact habitat within the protected areas, but only 50% intact habitat in the 5 km surrounding buffer (Table 10).  Piedras Blancas national park also exhibited a large decrease in intact habitat from within (93%) to surrounding (62%) the park. 
Table 8. Habitat quality ≤ 1 km of roads and > 1km from roads.

> 1 km of roads
Mainland Osa Peninsula Total area
Status Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%)
Converted 3406 8697.9 4547075.4 14.1 2245.0 3809.3 2045186.8 4.9 5651.0 12507.2 6592262.2 9.0
Degraded 2016 5816.5 3721022.2 9.4 1861.0 3012.4 2024588.6 3.9 3877.0 8828.9 5745610.8 6.4
Intact 2887 47314.7 9054440.9 76.5 1230.0 70361.9 3767817.6 91.2 4117.0 117676.6 12822258.5 84.7
Grand Total 8309 61829.1 17322538.5 100.0 5336.0 77183.6 7837593.0 100.0 13645.0 139012.7 25160131.5 100.0
≤ 1 km of roads
Mainland Osa Peninsula Total area
Status Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%)
Converted 11209.0 51466.2 20577493.3 48.9 3542.0 16140.3 5804619.4 40.9 14751.0 67606.5 26382112.6 46.7
Degraded 3385.0 10949.0 6790739.5 10.4 1641.0 4045.7 2441949.7 10.2 5026.0 14994.7 9232689.1 10.4
Intact 3116.0 42795.0 9066651.0 40.7 1859.0 19285.4 4529816.1 48.9 4975.0 62080.4 13596467.1 42.9
Grand Total 17710.0 105210.2 36434883.7 100.0 7042.0 39471.4 12776385.1 100.0 24752.0 144681.6 49211268.8 100.0

 
Table 9A. Habitat quality within protected areas and outside protected areas.

Total area (Km2) Area (%) Intact Edge/Area Converted
Study region Converted Degraded Intact Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Not protected 1307.9 50.9 10.7 38.5 25.5 13832 66512.4 25494669.6 38.3 83.0
Protected 1529.5 8.9 6.4 84.6 10.5 6693 13646.7 7520509.3 55.1 17.0
HH-LACUSTRINO PEJEPERRITO 0.3 10.6 26.6 62.8 54.7 9 3.4 5839.0 171.4 0.0
HH-Terraba-Sierpe Humedales 67.7 34.2 8.2 57.6 28.2 425 2316.1 944950.1 40.8 2.9
HH-Terraba-Sierpe Manglares 152.8 7.4 3.2 89.4 30.4 407 1135.7 735841.6 64.8 1.4
PN-CORCOVADO 430.1 0.5 0.6 98.9 2.6 207 220.2 167690.1 76.1 0.3
PN-PIEDRAS BLANCAS 141.3 4.9 1.8 93.4 4.5 605 687.9 480441.7 69.8 0.9
RF-GOLFO DULCE 578.6 12.5 7.2 80.3 9.6 3729 7259.0 3957875.1 54.5 9.1
RF-HACIENDA COPANO 2.6 4.8 24.7 70.5 26.6 8 12.4 6321.0 50.8 0.0
RI-CONTE BURICA 71.1 20.5 45.3 34.3 56.9 933 1456.2 916141.8 62.9 1.8
RI-OSA 27.1 2.8 5.1 92.1 5.5 93 76.8 55196.3 71.8 0.1
RVS-CARATE 1.2 1.6 7.7 90.7 7.6 3 1.9 1484.7 76.4 0.0
RVS-DONALD PETER HAYES 2.1 2.5 0.0 97.5 5.3 6 5.3 4540.0 85.3 0.0
RVS-FORESTAL  GOLFITO 0.9 26.8 5.2 68.0 24.7 10 23.3 17086.3 73.4 0.0
RVS-GOLFITO 28.1 4.4 0.9 94.7 4.8 146 123.7 105005.5 84.9 0.2
RVS-LAGUNA AZUL 0.2 12.4 15.2 72.4 41.0 6 1.9 2924.1 152.4 0.0
RVS-OSA 16.0 2.3 36.2 61.5 34.9 67 36.4 30854.1 84.7 0.0
RVS-PEJEPERRO 4.4 42.5 19.8 37.7 39.2 21 189.1 38878.0 20.6 0.2
RVS-PUNTA RIO CLARO 2.5 2.8 2.5 94.8 6.8 4 6.8 4617.9 67.4 0.0
RVS-QUILLOTRO 0.8 11.5 1.7 86.8 12.8 4 8.9 5433.4 61.4 0.0
RVS-RIO ORO 1.3 61.1 12.9 25.9 66.7 10 81.4 39388.5 48.4 0.1
RVS-RIO PIRO 0.3 0.0 14.8 85.2 17.6
Grand Total 2837.5 28.3 8.4 63.4 36.0 20525 80159.1 33015178.9 93.4 100.0
 
Table 9B. Habitat quality within protected areas and outside protected areas.

Degraded Intact
Study region Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Not protected 4425 13958.9 8599044.3 61.6 58.6 4805 50323.5 12821565.7 25.5 28.0
Protected 4536 9864.7 6409663.6 65.0 41.4 4375 129440.5 13646743.2 10.5 72.0
HH-LACUSTRINO PEJEPERRITO 11 8.6 9548.5 111.1 0.0 5 20.3 11088.7 54.7 0.0
HH-Terraba-Sierpe Humedales 133 555.0 305953.9 55.1 2.3 284 3899.3 1101540.6 28.2 2.2
HH-Terraba-Sierpe Manglares 135 490.6 268491.6 54.7 2.1 1344 13657.1 4146847.1 30.4 7.6
PN-CORCOVADO 521 239.6 236259.1 98.6 1.0 482 42546.3 1113500.3 2.6 23.7
PN-PIEDRAS BLANCAS 123 250.7 187529.3 74.8 1.1 107 13192.7 593917.7 4.5 7.3
RF-GOLFO DULCE 2119 4160.6 2654273.5 63.8 17.5 1167 46444.1 4478446.6 9.6 25.8
RF-HACIENDA COPANO 22 64.2 50387.3 78.4 0.3 9 183.5 48819.8 26.6 0.1
RI-CONTE BURICA 1189 3220.0 2169305.8 67.4 13.5 774 2435.9 1386950.3 56.9 1.4
RI-OSA 51 136.8 82381.3 60.2 0.6 33 2491.9 136680.4 5.5 1.4
RVS-CARATE 8 9.5 6142.4 64.9 0.0 1 111.1 8447.3 7.6 0.1
RVS-DONALD PETER HAYES 0.0 1 205.6 10889.8 5.3 0.1
RVS-FORESTAL  GOLFITO 1 4.5 1720.0 37.9 0.0 1 59.2 14597.2 24.7 0.0
RVS-GOLFITO 12 24.4 19318.2 79.2 0.1 19 2666.2 128571.8 4.8 1.5
RVS-LAGUNA AZUL 5 2.4 2363.4 100.1 0.0 2 11.2 4597.6 41.0 0.0
RVS-OSA 134 580.6 330526.0 56.9 2.4 100 986.1 343968.1 34.9 0.5
RVS-PEJEPERRO 41 88.1 56123.8 63.7 0.4 28 167.7 65688.9 39.2 0.1
RVS-PUNTA RIO CLARO 5 6.1 4549.5 74.8 0.0 1 234.1 15926.5 6.8 0.1
RVS-QUILLOTRO 1 1.3 1130.0 84.8 0.0 2 66.8 8528.6 12.8 0.0
RVS-RIO ORO 22 17.2 20602.3 119.7 0.1 12 34.6 23046.3 66.7 0.0
RVS-RIO PIRO 3 4.6 3057.7 66.2 0.0 3 26.7 4689.6 17.6 0.0
Grand Total 8961 23823.6 15008707.9 126.6 100.0 0 9180 179764.0 26468308.8 36.0 100.0
  
Table 10. Habitat quality within selected protected areas and within a 5 km buffer around them.
Total area (Km2) Area (%) Intact Edge/Area Converted
Study region (5 km buffer) Converted Degraded Intact Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Corcovado National Park 309.1 14.1 7.5 78.5 9.9 2184 4349.7 2248295.4 51.7 14.4
Piedras Blancas National Park 173.0 30.9 6.7 62.4 14.1 1943 5337.8 2916669.9 54.6 17.7
Terraba-Sierpe National Wetlands 297.8 40.7 6.0 53.3 16.5 2329 12112.6 4644119.9 38.3 40.1
Terraba-Sierpe Mangroves 192.3 43.8 5.9 50.2 22.2 1598 8429.8 3278776.7 38.9 27.9
Total 972.2 31.1 6.6 62.3 14.3 8054 30229.9 13087861.9 43.3 100.0
Study region (interior)  
Corcovado National Park 430.1 0.5 0.6 98.9 2.6 207 220.2 167690.1 76.1 0.3
Piedras Blancas National Park 141.3 4.9 1.8 93.4 4.5 605 687.9 480441.7 69.8 0.9
Terraba-Sierpe National Wetlands 67.7 34.2 8.2 57.6 28.2 425 2316.1 944950.1 40.8 2.9
Terraba-Sierpe Mangroves 152.8 7.4 3.2 89.4 30.4 407 1135.7 735841.6 64.8 1.4
Total 791.9 5.5 1.9 92.6 9.5 1644.0 4359.9 2328923.6 53.4 14.4
Difference (interiors vs. buffers) -180.3 -25.6 -4.6 30.2 -4.8 -6410.0 -25870.0 -10758938.4 10.1 -85.6
Degraded Intact
Study region (5 km buffer) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Corcovado National Park 1322 2309.590737 1438190.398 62.27035704 36.1 890 24248.21398 2389954.939 9.856210197 40.0
Piedras Blancas National Park 458 1165.600856 808348.8595 69.3504003 18.2 315 10798.13819 1521063.94 14.08635371 17.8
Terraba-Sierpe National Wetlands 571 1781.143152 1099847.88 61.74954994 27.8 580 15888.41729 2621631.752 16.50027001 26.2
Terraba-Sierpe Mangroves 358 1142.082215 695682.4386 60.9135165 17.8 668 9658.636336 2147625.795 22.23528996 15.9
Total 2709 6398.4 4042069.6 63.17296296 100.0 2453 60593.4 8680276.4 14.32544732 100.0
Study region (interior)  
Corcovado National Park 521 239.5710363 236259.1292 98.61756783 1.005603523 482 42546.272 1113500.277 2.617151221 23.66785488
Piedras Blancas National Park 123 250.6636439 187529.265 74.81310897 1.052164933 107 13192.65799 593917.6677 4.501880274 7.338878359
Terraba-Sierpe National Wetlands 133 554.9570046 305953.8527 55.13109127 2.32944152 284 3899.325667 1101540.561 28.24951429 2.169136559
Terraba-Sierpe Mangroves 135 490.6251845 268491.592 54.72438034 2.059407604 1344 13657.14136 4146847.05 30.36394617 7.597263511
Total 912.0 1535.8 998233.8 65.0 24.0 2217.0 73295.4 6955805.6 9.5 121.0
Difference (interiors vs. buffers) -1797.0 -4862.6 -3043835.7 1.8 -76.0 -236.0 12702.0 -1724470.9 -4.8 21.0
 
Table 11 presents the habitat quality within the principal population centers in our study area. Golfito had the highest % of intact habitat (89%), versus Rio Claro which had the lowest (19%). Intact habitat fragmentation was highly correlelated with its total area (%) across all population centers. Table 12 presents habitat quality within secondary population centers in our study area. Carate had the highest % intact habitat (89%), versus Palmar Norte which had the lowest (15%). A full table of LULC within principal population areas is provided in Supplementary Materials C and for secondary population areas in Supplementary Materials D.

We used an ordinal logistic stepwise regression to compare the significance of protected areas, elevation and slope on the likelihood of the landscape being in an intact, degraded, or converted state using 10,000 randomly located points. Results of the stepwise regression are provided in Figure 5, which shows that only elevation and slope had a significant effect on the probability of habitat quality. We then ran individual logistic fit regressions of habitat quality (with intact, degraded and converted equal to 1, 2, and 3, respectively) versus elevation (m) and slope (degrees). Both were highly significant, although elevation had a chi-squre equal to nearly twice that of slope, indicating a much higher explanatory power.
 
Table 11. Habitat quality within the principal population centers in our study region.

Total area (Km2) Area (%) Intact Edge/Area Converted
Region Converted Degraded Intact Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Chacarita 61.5 45.1 7.0 47.8 18.5 611 2775.6 1139140.7 41.0 21.8
Drake 48.2 21.5 10.9 67.6 14.8 437 1035.0 542615.6 52.4 8.1
Golfito 72.8 9.1 1.5 89.4 5.9 461 664.1 463769.9 69.8 5.2
La Palma 42.4 64.4 0.7 34.9 42.8 508 2729.2 985439.6 36.1 21.4
Puerto Jimenez 43.4 53.8 9.3 36.9 22.2 416 2337.4 818475.5 35.0 18.3
Rio Claro 49.6 64.6 16.1 19.3 30.6 809 3203.9 1330217.9 41.5 25.1
Total 317.9 40.1 7.2 52.7 16.1 3242.0 12745.3 5279659.2 41.4 100.0
Degraded Intact
Region Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Chacarita 137 433.2 290997.4 67.2 18.8 84 2940.0 544122.0 18.5 17.6
Drake 149 528.0 297743.2 56.4 22.9 92 3259.2 481767.6 14.8 19.5
Golfito 74 108.5 82201.8 75.8 4.7 53 6504.9 381340.5 5.9 38.8
La Palma 49 29.4 22928.5 77.9 1.3 313 1478.1 633070.1 42.8 8.8
Puerto Jimenez 214 402.3 230388.1 57.3 17.5 234 1604.2 355980.8 22.2 9.6
Rio Claro 257 799.4 479298.5 60.0 34.7 153 958.9 293665.5 30.6 5.7
Total 880 2300.9 1403557.6 61.0 100.0 929 16745.3 2689946.6 16.1 100.0


 
Table 12. Habitat quality within the secondary population centers in our study region.

Total area (Km2) Area (%) Intact Edge/Area Converted
Region Converted Degraded Intact Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Agua Buena 61.9 22.4 21.6 56.0 25.2 246 1386.3 426083.7 30.7 7.6
Carate 42.2 2.9 8.6 88.6 6.0 91 121.6 99699.7 82.0 0.7
La Gamba 78.5 27.7 4.5 67.8 9.5 936 2174.2 1260456.0 58.0 12.0
Palmar Norte 41.7 75.8 9.6 14.7 41.1 738 3159.6 1417342.6 44.9 17.4
Pavones y Punta Banco 39.6 31.9 50.6 17.5 72.8 504 1262.1 711755.3 56.4 7.0
Piedras Blancas 65.7 35.3 6.6 58.1 15.8 646 2317.0 1083582.4 46.8 12.8
Rancho Quemado 74.7 13.8 5.0 81.2 5.9 659 1034.1 532360.4 51.5 5.7
Rincon 57.4 36.3 2.4 61.3 16.7 531 2082.6 811902.7 39.0 11.5
Sierpe 78.5 58.4 11.3 30.3 30.6 691 4586.4 1616556.6 35.2 25.3
Total 540.2 33.5 11.6 54.8 15.7 5042.0 18123.8 7959739.5 43.9 100.0
Degraded Intact
Region Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Agua Buena 436 1340.3 868292.4 64.8 21.3 199 3465.1 872233.7 25.2 11.7
Carate 185 361.3 274348.4 75.9 5.8 17 3736.9 225789.6 6.0 12.6
La Gamba 258 352.6 271986.6 77.1 5.6 103 5327.0 506474.0 9.5 18.0
Palmar Norte 159 398.8 254156.8 63.7 6.3 108 612.7 251749.9 41.1 2.1
Pavones y Punta Banco 300 2004.3 1209058.3 60.3 31.9 364 693.1 504886.7 72.8 2.3
Piedras Blancas 138 432.5 302307.7 69.9 6.9 105 3816.9 602990.6 15.8 12.9
Rancho Quemado 240 372.0 218794.9 58.8 5.9 140 6061.0 356704.8 5.9 20.5
Rincon 112 135.6 101964.8 75.2 2.2 240 3520.2 587290.7 16.7 11.9
Sierpe 161 883.8 463400.9 52.4 14.1 232 2383.5 730438.5 30.6 8.0
Total 1989 6281.2 3964310.7 63.1 100.0 1508 29616.4 4638558.6 15.7 100.0
 
 
Figure 5. Stepwise regression results of habitat quality (with intact, degraded, and converted equal to 1, 2, 3, respectively) versus (a) protected vs. not, (b) elevation, and (c) slope. 
 
Figure 6. Logistic regressions of habitat quality versus (a) elevation and (b) slope. 
Discussion and conclusions

The majority of our study region is currently in intact habitat. However, this is not evenly distributed across the study region. It is mostly found in protected areas, far from roads and in areas that have historically been less accessible. For this reason, the majority of intact habitat is found on the Osa Peninsula, versus the mainland areas near the panamerican highway. Based on these factors alone, we can begin to explain why not all protected areas equally conserve intact habitat. Those protected areas being the less accessible have as expected best maintained high quality intact habitat. 

Unfortunately, many of the degraded protected areas, such as the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve, are critical to connectivity between the Corcorvado and Piedras National Parks, or from these parks into the intact habitiats found in the mountains to the east of our study region. This is found by simply comparing the intact habitat % within protected areas with their immediate buffer regions, with the logic being that those undergoing the greatest conversion pressure would be those whose buffers offered the least protection. 

This approach identified that the Terraba-Sierpe and Piedras Blancas areas were under significant threat. Although we did not conduct such a buffer analysis for the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve, it was not necessary and areas within this reserve were already undergoing significant conversion to pasture and agriculture.  Likewise, we found that indigenous reserves did not offer any special protection against forest conversion (with intact habitat being as low as 34% in the Conte Burica reserve), witih intact habitat % more linked to general accessibility – similar to nonprotected areas directly outside these reserves. 

Based on this we hypothesized that the likelihood of having intact habitat was more related to accessibility than protected status. Our regression analysis identified that while protected status was a significant explanatory variable of intact forest likehoold in the absence of other factors, it was not significant when we included elevation and slope into a multiple-regression model. Essentially, the protected areas have been preferentially established in areas that were the least valuable for other land uses, such as pasture and oil palm, and that had the highest likelihood of having had intact forest when the parks were originally established 30-60 years ago. These areas are those on steep slopes, or at high elevations (which are typically surrounded by steep slope areas). Unfortunately, we are now seeing the conversion of habitat on increasingly steeper slopes in areas with high land conversion pressure, such as surrounding the Terraba-Sierpe mangroves and wetlands, and within the Golfo Dulce Forest Reserve and the Piedras Blancas National Park.  

Based on these results we highly recommend that steep slopes be monitored closely for encroachment, degradation and/or conversion from intact habitat to other land uses, principally pasture in mountainous forested areas, and that any encursion is immediately halted via enforcement of laws against deforestation and forest degradation. In addition, it is critical that cattle are not allowed to encroach on the remaining intact habitat as this represents a slow form of deforestation through often complete loss of understory regeneration in many forested areas surrounding pasture areas. Also, careful attention should be taken to identify killing of trees through girdling (often conducted via machetes or chainsaws) and/or poisoning of trees – which again represents an equally effective (although slower paced) but harder to detect form of deforestation. 

We are now following up on this study with an updated map at the same high spatial resolution for the year 2015. This will allow for direct mapping of land conversion pressure through multi-temporal analysis, versus our buffer and proximity analyses used in this current study. We recommend that the spatial resolution of future maps be increased beyond the current – albeit extremely high – 5x5 meter resolution to enable monitoring of illegal logging of individual tree crowns in forested areas which, second only to complete deforestation, presents one of the greatest threats to survival of the full structure and composition of the intact dense forests in areas even somewhat accessible to humans.

Supplementary materials
 
SM-A. Land use and land cover on the Osa Peninsula and mainland.
Mainland Osa Peninsula
LULC Class Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Edge/Area (km/km2) Area (%)
Bosque Denso 3224 59920.04 9250893.34 15.44 35.87 2099 85698.02 6563109.72 7.66 73.46
Bosque Denso de Mangle 440 10527.50 2635431.74 25.03 6.30 83 1036.49 335715.59 32.39 0.89
Bosque Denso de Melina 161 2050.16 784010.00 38.24 1.23 117 1103.73 286160.00 25.93 0.95
Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite 448 8498.77 1554700.00 18.29 5.09 183 1274.31 313010.00 24.56 1.09
Bosque Denso de Pejibaye 5 22.50 11700.00 52.00 0.01 1 0.31 320.00 103.23 0.00
Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal 85 675.81 194560.00 28.79 0.40 11 56.38 16320.00 28.95 0.05
Bosque Denso de Pochote 0.00 2 37.59 13310.00 35.41 0.03
Bosque Denso de Roble Coral 4 21.03 11040.00 52.50 0.01 0.00
Bosque Denso de Teca 4 73.04 24220.00 33.16 0.04 0.00
Bosque Denso de Trichospermum 5 41.50 18620.00 44.87 0.02 3 0.32 430.00 133.33 0.00
Bosque Denso de Yolillo 120 3175.03 690880.00 21.76 1.90 9 548.73 87510.00 15.95 0.47
Bosque Denso Pantanoso 41 216.64 73610.00 33.98 0.13 0.00
Bosque Ralo 146 512.58 338110.00 65.96 0.31 249 359.50 227500.00 63.28 0.31
Bosque Ralo de Cerillo 59 299.81 140220.00 46.77 0.18 0.00
Bosque Ralo de Mangle 222 877.80 478269.82 54.49 0.53 37 49.30 47849.94 97.06 0.04
Bosque Ralo de Melina 13 71.96 42090.00 58.49 0.04 0.00
Bosque Ralo de Yolillo 13 63.91 41780.00 65.37 0.04 0.00
Bosque Urbano 65 108.69 88440.00 81.37 0.07 24 41.56 29320.00 70.54 0.04
Cuerpo de Agua 625 9212.71 1826902.34 19.83 5.52 530 1231.71 555105.30 45.07 1.06
Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo 25 142.82 78260.00 54.80 0.09 0.00
Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra 2 57.63 17150.00 29.76 0.03 0.00
Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje 723 1919.32 1347130.00 70.19 1.15 331 671.83 430410.00 64.07 0.58
Herbazal Arbustivo 1677 4917.23 2968322.73 60.37 2.94 316 472.74 297106.25 62.85 0.41
Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite 110 1026.66 406120.00 39.56 0.61 0.00
Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo 29 309.01 142470.00 46.10 0.18 0.00
Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje 1106 3700.74 2106720.00 56.93 2.22 847 2734.46 1420230.00 51.94 2.34
Herbazal Denso 2560 8610.08 4188596.25 48.65 5.15 455 761.47 348852.45 45.81 0.65
Herbazal Denso Arbolado 594 2660.71 1726640.00 64.89 1.59 365 348.63 256390.00 73.54 0.30
Herbazal Denso de Arroz 156 5109.10 755560.00 14.79 3.06 30 137.67 55430.00 40.26 0.12
Herbazal Denso de Banano 38 226.37 107780.00 47.61 0.14 0.00
Herbazal Denso de Mangle 56 120.44 83230.00 69.11 0.07 2 6.30 4530.00 71.93 0.01
Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra 208 985.06 424300.00 43.07 0.59 2 5.84 3160.00 54.11 0.01
Herbazal Denso Pantanoso 5 135.40 24800.00 18.32 0.08 0.00
Herbazal Denso para Forraje 2942 14800.93 5548989.31 37.49 8.86 1883 10818.70 3234161.68 29.89 9.27
Herbazal Denso Quemado 189 343.39 178490.00 51.98 0.21 12 10.97 7870.00 71.71 0.01
Herbazal Ralo 189 611.70 357830.00 58.50 0.37 71 66.69 44020.00 66.01 0.06
Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra 6 49.13 21240.00 43.23 0.03 0.00
Herbazal Ralo para Forraje 7 3.23 4483.69 138.69 0.00 97 179.84 144645.76 80.43 0.15
Infraestructura 181 243.82 231840.00 95.09 0.15 127 23.26 26930.00 115.78 0.02
Matorral Denso 1151 2608.47 1785010.00 68.43 1.56 1344 1999.05 1228850.00 61.47 1.71
Matorral Denso Arbolado 2775 8823.21 5427050.00 61.51 5.28 1166 4011.76 2497810.00 62.26 3.44
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo 77 1758.83 477600.00 27.15 1.05 0.00
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite 133 803.84 364410.00 45.33 0.48 0.00
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal 2 19.48 9590.00 49.24 0.01 0.00
Matorral Denso de Mangle 766 3277.57 1683573.21 51.37 1.96 102 276.36 154265.60 55.82 0.24
Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite 75 756.25 316800.00 41.89 0.45 0.00
Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal 2 6.28 4860.00 77.36 0.00 0.00
Matorral Denso de Yolillo 61 414.07 197780.00 47.76 0.25 0.00
Matorral Ralo 170 693.20 410171.12 59.17 0.41 209 289.82 163038.66 56.25 0.25
Matorral Ralo de Mangle 8 33.59 13770.00 40.99 0.02 1 0.32 510.00 158.14 0.00
Terreno Descubierto 3167 5502.20 3281912.66 59.65 3.29 1193 2401.36 1384674.82 57.66 2.06
Total 24870 167039.2567 52897956.2 100.00 11901 116655.0283 20178545.76 100.00
 
SM-B1. Land use and land cover ≤ 1 km from roads.
Within 1 km of a road
Mainland Osa Peninsula
LULC Class Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%)
Bosque Denso 2243 35197.1 6640499.1 33.5 1369 17226.0 3683892.4 43.6
Bosque Denso de Mangle 201 2618.0 834311.4 2.5 71 847.8 276738.0 2.1
Bosque Denso de Melina 143 1731.2 657082.0 1.6 57 755.3 191108.0 1.9
Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite 425 8357.5 1484420.2 7.9 135 1227.4 289940.1 3.1
Bosque Denso de Pejibaye 5 22.5 11700.0 0.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal 83 657.1 183242.5 0.6 11 47.2 14992.1 0.1
Bosque Denso de Pochote 0.0 1 37.4 13070.0 0.1
Bosque Denso de Roble Coral 0.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Teca 3 70.6 21820.0 0.1 0.0
Bosque Denso de Trichospermum 4 37.9 16760.0 0.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Yolillo 59 1294.9 336293.7 1.2 0.0
Bosque Denso Pantanoso 32 162.5 58892.3 0.2 0.0
Bosque Ralo 136 476.9 310266.9 0.5 175 278.4 169076.1 0.7
Bosque Ralo de Cerillo 2 1.0 1420.5 0.0 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Mangle 118 384.9 233449.4 0.4 27 27.4 30755.6 0.1
Bosque Ralo de Melina 13 72.0 42090.0 0.1 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Yolillo 9 36.0 18167.3 0.0 0.0
Bosque Urbano 63 107.6 86665.0 0.1 23 37.2 25440.0 0.1
Cuerpo de Agua 261 2599.4 621041.5 2.5 335 945.0 407331.5 2.4
Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo 15 40.5 27852.0 0.0 0.0
Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra 1 10.0 6203.5 0.0 0.0
Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje 414 1245.7 846179.7 1.2 157 437.9 278850.6 1.1
Herbazal Arbustivo 1450 4161.3 2574135.4 4.0 155 222.5 159829.5 0.6
Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite 100 905.3 361889.9 0.9 0.0
Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo 10 70.8 41869.3 0.1 0.0
Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje 954 3179.3 1831091.4 3.0 576 2019.0 1005500.8 5.1
Herbazal Denso 2055 7301.1 3466390.9 6.9 216 240.6 175320.6 0.6
Herbazal Denso Arbolado 359 1554.6 975083.3 1.5 168 227.6 155160.5 0.6
Herbazal Denso de Arroz 132 4391.9 616315.7 4.2 29 133.6 51691.6 0.3
Herbazal Denso de Banano 38 226.4 107780.0 0.2 0.0
Herbazal Denso de Mangle 32 31.1 26857.6 0.0 1 5.2 3790.0 0.0
Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra 47 144.7 86607.7 0.1 2 5.8 3160.0 0.0
Herbazal Denso Pantanoso 5 111.0 21925.8 0.1 0.0
Herbazal Denso para Forraje 2209 12231.5 4516017.1 11.6 1248 9197.4 2532738.4 23.3
Herbazal Denso Quemado 166 272.8 161379.5 0.3 12 11.0 7868.3 0.0
Herbazal Ralo 157 353.0 241158.5 0.3 55 55.9 35770.0 0.1
Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra 1 4.5 4081.2 0.0 0.0
Herbazal Ralo para Forraje 0.0 85 159.5 128748.3 0.4
Infraestructura 175 241.5 228666.7 0.2 113 15.9 21000.0 0.0
Matorral Denso 846 1920.7 1304928.9 1.8 572 925.4 588154.7 2.3
Matorral Denso Arbolado 1717 5765.4 3488590.0 5.5 565 2426.3 1412560.8 6.1
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo 19 83.9 41811.7 0.1 0.0
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite 132 791.9 357182.2 0.8 0.0
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal 2 19.5 9590.0 0.0 0.0
Matorral Denso de Mangle 181 337.8 268496.5 0.3 40 160.0 88139.7 0.4
Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite 74 755.4 316130.0 0.7 0.0
Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal 2 6.2 4792.7 0.0 0.0
Matorral Denso de Yolillo 48 296.8 140118.7 0.3 0.0
Matorral Ralo 158 577.2 359492.0 0.5 134 160.6 86242.0 0.4
Matorral Ralo de Mangle 1 24.3 9130.0 0.0 1 0.3 510.0 0.0
Terreno Descubierto 2410 4327.1 2435013.9 4.1 709 1637.7 939005.6 4.1
Grand Total 17710 105210.2 36434883.7 100.0 7042 39471.4 12776385.1 100.0
 
SM-B2. Land use and land cover > 1 km from roads.
Outside road buffer
Mainland Osa Peninsula
LULC Class Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%) Count (#) Area (Ha) Edge (m) Area (%)
Bosque Denso 1118 24722.9 3008951.9 40.0 816 68472.0 3163687.5 88.7
Bosque Denso de Mangle 285 7909.5 1854276.1 12.8 20 188.7 67309.8 0.2
Bosque Denso de Melina 31 319.0 140467.3 0.5 64 348.4 101664.2 0.5
Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite 42 141.3 77783.0 0.2 56 46.9 25344.6 0.1
Bosque Denso de Pejibaye 0.0 1 0.3 320.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal 5 18.7 12112.3 0.0 1 9.2 2335.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Pochote 0.0 1 0.2 240.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Roble Coral 4 21.0 11040.0 0.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Teca 1 2.5 2400.0 0.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Trichospermum 1 3.6 1860.0 0.0 3 0.3 430.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Yolillo 83 1880.2 384475.4 3.0 9 548.7 87510.0 0.7
Bosque Denso Pantanoso 14 54.1 20412.6 0.1 0.0
Bosque Ralo 17 35.7 29415.7 0.1 82 81.1 59533.3 0.1
Bosque Ralo de Cerillo 59 298.8 139002.6 0.5 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Mangle 132 492.9 253101.5 0.8 11 21.9 17114.4 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Melina 0.0 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Yolillo 8 27.9 24044.8 0.0 0.0
Bosque Urbano 3 1.1 1913.9 0.0 1 4.4 3880.0 0.0
Cuerpo de Agua 389 6613.3 1249731.8 10.7 207 286.7 151810.7 0.4
Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo 12 102.3 51831.5 0.2 0.0
Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra 2 47.7 12073.7 0.1 0.0
Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje 350 673.7 508079.7 1.1 187 233.9 157326.3 0.3
Herbazal Arbustivo 294 755.9 411962.3 1.2 167 250.2 137775.8 0.3
Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite 20 121.3 49477.5 0.2 0.0
Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo 24 238.2 102452.3 0.4 0.0
Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje 206 521.5 295249.8 0.8 325 715.5 429588.8 0.9
Herbazal Denso 611 1309.0 759612.1 2.1 252 520.8 177128.6 0.7
Herbazal Denso Arbolado 277 1106.2 767096.4 1.8 203 121.0 101912.3 0.2
Herbazal Denso de Arroz 40 717.2 158609.7 1.2 6 4.0 4149.3 0.0
Herbazal Denso de Banano 0.0 0.0
Herbazal Denso de Mangle 30 89.3 57726.4 0.1 1 1.1 740.0 0.0
Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra 181 840.3 345890.8 1.4 0.0
Herbazal Denso Pantanoso 1 24.4 4780.9 0.0 0.0
Herbazal Denso para Forraje 869 2569.4 1098024.7 4.2 722 1621.3 750828.3 2.1
Herbazal Denso Quemado 25 70.6 19264.4 0.1 1 0.0 9.7 0.0
Herbazal Ralo 43 258.7 119578.8 0.4 16 10.8 8250.0 0.0
Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra 6 44.6 17634.5 0.1 0.0
Herbazal Ralo para Forraje 7 3.2 4483.7 0.0 18 20.3 16489.1 0.0
Infraestructura 8 2.3 3419.9 0.0 14 7.4 5930.0 0.0
Matorral Denso 344 687.8 487456.2 1.1 813 1073.6 658205.4 1.4
Matorral Denso Arbolado 1181 3057.8 1983132.3 4.9 666 1585.5 1109981.0 2.1
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo 67 1674.9 438642.2 2.7 0.0
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite 4 11.9 7407.0 0.0 0.0
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal 0.0 0.0
Matorral Denso de Mangle 628 2939.8 1422400.6 4.8 69 116.4 68262.6 0.2
Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite 1 0.8 670.0 0.0 0.0
Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal 1 0.1 177.9 0.0 0.0
Matorral Denso de Yolillo 19 117.3 62382.3 0.2 0.0
Matorral Ralo 19 116.0 53910.4 0.2 86 129.2 77842.3 0.2
Matorral Ralo de Mangle 7 9.3 4640.0 0.0 0.0
Terreno Descubierto 840 1175.1 863481.4 1.9 518 763.7 451994.2 1.0
Grand Total 8309 61829.1 17322538.5 100.0 5336 77183.6 7837593.0 100.0

 
SM-C. Land use and land cover ≤ 5 km from principal population centers.
Area (Ha) Area (%)
LULC Class Chacarita Drake Golfito La Palma Puerto Jimenez Rio Claro Chacarita Drake Golfito La Palma Puerto Jimenez Rio Claro
Bosque Denso 2895.9 2744.5 5191.3 1008.8 1258.6 954.7 47.1 56.9 71.3 23.8 29.0 19.2
Bosque Denso de Mangle 121.4 70.2 287.0 271.1 2.1 2.5 1.0 6.8 6.2 0.0
Bosque Denso de Melina 57.3 87.0 190.9 38.7 0.9 1.2 4.4 0.8
Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite 1132.3 81.7 377.1 232.0 1039.0 18.4 1.1 8.9 5.3 20.9
Bosque Denso de Pejibaye 17.2 0.3
Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal 20.8 12.5 10.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
Bosque Denso de Pochote 0.0 0.0
Bosque Denso de Roble Coral
Bosque Denso de Teca 31.6 0.5
Bosque Denso de Trichospermum
Bosque Denso de Yolillo
Bosque Denso Pantanoso
Bosque Ralo 36.0 88.4 76.8 28.7 0.6 1.8 1.8 0.6
Bosque Ralo de Cerillo
Bosque Ralo de Mangle
Bosque Ralo de Melina 4.0 0.1
Bosque Ralo de Yolillo
Bosque Urbano 61.3 12.7 20.5 8.5 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.2
Cuerpo de Agua 27.0 226.6 1243.5 142.3 74.5 1.4 0.4 4.7 17.1 3.4 1.7 0.0
Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo
Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra
Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje 19.1 10.9 134.0 2.7 0.4 0.1 3.2 0.1
Herbazal Arbustivo 347.2 81.7 17.2 11.8 80.7 5.6 1.7 0.2 0.3 1.6
Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite 453.7 7.4
Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo
Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje 119.5 37.7 44.9 96.2 284.3 106.5 1.9 0.8 0.6 2.3 6.5 2.1
Herbazal Denso 451.7 118.6 32.7 2.0 2.4 124.9 7.3 2.5 0.4 0.0 0.1 2.5
Herbazal Denso Arbolado 27.2 10.2 12.3 96.5 0.4 0.1 0.3 1.9
Herbazal Denso de Arroz 43.4 35.8 1.0 0.7
Herbazal Denso de Banano
Herbazal Denso de Mangle 5.2 0.1
Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra 5.8 0.1
Herbazal Denso Pantanoso
Herbazal Denso para Forraje 11.9 596.5 127.3 1741.5 1259.8 1164.1 0.2 12.4 1.7 41.1 29.0 23.5
Herbazal Denso Quemado
Herbazal Ralo 10.8 40.6 5.1 0.2 0.9 0.1
Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra
Herbazal Ralo para Forraje 147.1 3.0
Infraestructura 85.2 2.9 1.7 76.1 1.2 0.1 0.0 1.5
Matorral Denso 142.8 22.2 32.9 28.2 45.6 130.1 2.3 0.5 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.6
Matorral Denso Arbolado 226.8 321.0 65.4 1.2 267.7 499.3 3.7 6.7 0.9 0.0 6.2 10.1
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo 17.1 0.3
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite 54.3 179.8 0.9 3.6
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal
Matorral Denso de Mangle 155.3 40.0 0.8 3.2 0.9 0.0
Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite 6.4 0.1
Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal 1.2 0.0
Matorral Denso de Yolillo
Matorral Ralo 0.4 96.4 44.8 0.0 2.0 0.9
Matorral Ralo de Mangle 0.3 0.0
Terreno Descubierto 83.7 23.5 115.8 295.1 305.2 314.6 1.4 0.5 1.6 7.0 7.0 6.3
Total 6148.7 4822.2 7277.5 4236.8 4344.0 4962.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

 
SM-D. Land use and land cover ≤ 5 km from secondary population centers.

Town (Area ha) Town (Area %)
LULC Class Agua Buena Carate La Gamba Palmar Norte Pavones y Punta Banco Piedras Blancas Rancho Quemado Rincon Sierpe Agua Buena Carate La Gamba Palmar Norte Pavones y Punta Banco Piedras Blancas Rancho Quemado Rincon Sierpe
Bosque Denso 3338.5 3703.3 5298.0 520.8 693.1 3749.9 6058.0 3026.6 1005.2 53.9 87.8 67.5 12.5 17.5 57.1 81.1 52.7 12.8
Bosque Denso de Mangle 31.8 250.3 353.5 0.5 4.4 4.5
Bosque Denso de Melina 121.4 400.9 21.7 256.7 90.7 1.5 9.6 0.3 3.4 1.2
Bosque Denso de Palma de Aceite 166.2 401.8 780.7 0.6 165.5 875.5 2.1 9.6 11.9 0.0 2.9 11.1
Bosque Denso de Pejibaye 0.3 0.0
Bosque Denso de Plantacion Forestal 25.7 51.1 15.0 5.6 50.8 20.6 0.3 1.2 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.3
Bosque Denso de Pochote
Bosque Denso de Roble Coral 5.4 0.1
Bosque Denso de Teca 4.4 0.1
Bosque Denso de Trichospermum 37.9 0.5
Bosque Denso de Yolillo 544.9 6.9
Bosque Denso Pantanoso
Bosque Ralo 52.6 38.8 1.5 43.2 3.6 0.8 0.5 0.0 0.7 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Cerillo 1.4 0.0
Bosque Ralo de Mangle 290.7 3.7
Bosque Ralo de Melina 68.0 4.0 1.6 0.1
Bosque Ralo de Yolillo
Bosque Urbano 4.4 6.2 0.1 0.1
Cuerpo de Agua 92.0 33.6 1.1 91.5 28.5 3.0 187.0 271.8 1.5 0.8 0.0 2.2 0.4 0.0 3.3 3.5
Herbazal Arbolado con Yolillo 33.5 0.4
Herbazal Arbolado de Negra Forra
Herbazal Arbolado para Forraje 28.9 394.2 15.6 4.3 106.5 0.5 10.0 0.2 0.1 1.4
Herbazal Arbustivo 86.0 21.7 223.4 418.4 348.8 142.4 79.9 450.3 1.4 0.5 2.8 10.0 5.3 1.9 1.4 5.7
Herbazal Arbustivo de Palma de Aceite 326.4 20.4 5.0 0.3
Herbazal Arbustivo de Yolillo 83.4 1.1
Herbazal Arbustivo para Forraje 34.3 14.1 378.7 217.1 146.0 82.2 45.0 349.4 0.6 0.3 4.8 5.2 2.2 1.1 0.8 4.4
Herbazal Denso 31.9 530.8 967.4 435.2 119.5 71.8 248.8 0.5 6.8 23.2 6.6 1.6 1.3 3.2
Herbazal Denso Arbolado 79.2 39.0 11.0 77.9 651.2 13.8 118.1 1.9 22.7 1.3 0.9 0.1 1.9 16.4 0.2 1.6 0.0 0.3
Herbazal Denso de Arroz 11.0 20.2 108.4 1249.4 0.1 0.5 1.9 15.9
Herbazal Denso de Banano 28.7 4.0 0.4 0.1
Herbazal Denso de Mangle 28.3 0.4
Herbazal Denso de Negra Forra 39.7 0.5
Herbazal Denso Pantanoso
Herbazal Denso para Forraje 1008.9 19.1 300.7 17.2 558.6 11.1 365.5 1317.3 863.0 16.3 0.5 3.8 0.4 14.1 0.2 4.9 23.0 11.0
Herbazal Denso Quemado 63.4 5.0 7.6 11.3 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.1
Herbazal Ralo 0.1 128.3 7.2 4.0 53.4 0.0 1.6 0.2 0.1 0.7
Herbazal Ralo de Negra Forra
Herbazal Ralo para Forraje 6.2 7.4 0.1 0.1
Infraestructura 0.6 0.0 0.8 21.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3
Matorral Denso 181.0 96.8 56.3 49.1 41.4 99.0 144.3 105.1 139.3 2.9 2.3 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.8
Matorral Denso Arbolado 1024.4 225.5 233.1 261.9 1311.8 276.5 106.0 20.6 269.8 16.5 5.3 3.0 6.3 33.1 4.2 1.4 0.4 3.4
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Cerillo 27.9 38.5 63.8 0.4 0.6 0.8
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Palma de Aceite 93.1 0.0 100.3 71.5 1.2 0.0 1.5 0.9
Matorral Denso Arbolado de Plantacion Forestal 19.5 0.2
Matorral Denso de Mangle 2.8 0.4 56.3 28.7 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.4
Matorral Denso de Palma de Aceite 124.2 6.4 83.6 3.0 0.1 1.1
Matorral Denso de Plantacion Forestal
Matorral Denso de Yolillo 12.6 0.2
Matorral Ralo 3.0 13.5 8.4 8.1 78.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.0
Matorral Ralo de Mangle
Terreno Descubierto 196.2 66.7 146.2 398.7 309.3 117.0 26.0 218.5 26.9 3.2 1.6 1.9 9.6 7.8 1.8 0.3 3.8 0.3
Total 6191.7 4219.8 7853.8 4171.1 3959.5 6566.3 7467.1 5738.4 7853.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

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